Archive for March, 2008

ZIMBABWE ELECTIONS: AND THE WINNER IS…

March 30, 2008

Today’s state run ‘Sunday Mail’ led with a headline that claims that Zimbabwe is gripped with anxiety as people await the results of yesterday’s election. The reality on the streets however is that there is jubilation – ‘the people’ have already declared themselves winners, if the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission issues a different verdict it will be seen as a clear case of political daylight robbery. Unofficial tallies coming in from across the country show the opposition Movement for Democratic Change led by Tsvangirai in a clean lead over Zanu PF and Simba Makoni. Confirmed reports are that Zanu PF’s heavy weights were trounced by the MDC, these include, Joyce Mujuru (Mugabe’s Vice President), Elliot Manyika (ZANU PF’s political commissar and Minister without portfolio), and Patrick Chinamasa (Minister of Justice). The election has turned out to be a slaughter house for the Arthur Mutambara formation of the MDC who lost everything and won only one Senate seat (David Coltart) in Bulawayo – which was supposed to be their stronghold. It is the reported MDC victories in traditional Zanu PF strongholds that has become a cause for celebration for the long suffering Zimbabwe in anticipation of CHANGE! The MDC is holding a series of press conferences and the party officials officials have said despite the seriously flawed electoral environment, they are certain of victory.

A major concern that is on everyone’s mind is whether Mugabe and his regime will gracefully accept defeat and hand over power to Morgan Tsvangirai. Considering what ZANU PF henchman stand to lose if the regime is ousted it is not clear what the regime will do. Most of the regime’s people have dirty hands, have outrightly stolen wealth, some have gross human rights cases hanging over their heads. My thinking is that Zanu PF is in no opposition to carry out coup and or war threats as has been variously claimed by regime functionaries. The regime is broke; the junior ranking officers in the army and police force are demoralised and suffering like everyone else – Zanu is just in no shape to fight a war now and they know that it’s a losing option. The threat were just supposed to intimidate and instill fear in the electorate. From my travels in the rural areas of Matebeland – this strategy worked with some people but significant numbers of villagers, previously intimidated by such tactics were firmly resolved to vote the opposition! Unlike the previously election where the Zimbabwe Electoral commission announced results live on TV as they came in, this time around ZEC is not clear on what they want to do! The announcement of results is shrouded in secret creating a potentially chaotic environment.

As I head now to listen to the SADC delegation’s briefing, there is still a blackout on official results. however, unofficial tallies show the MDC as having won about 60% of the vote. If this is confirmed there will be no need for a run off as had been widely predicted by many commentators!

Whilst the quietness that marked voting yesterday still prevails today, I shudder to think what will happen if people are denied what is clearly a victory for the forces of democracy!

More updates on results as they come in…

Dare to Invent the Future!

Briggs

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Hope, Fear, Expectation, Skepticism, Anxiety – A Summary of the Situation on the Ground

March 27, 2008

The mood

It will be an understatement that the general election coming in the next two days has become the most anticipated election in Zimbabwe since the independence elections in 1980. The yearning for change goes so deep and is so widespread that the air is literally pregnant with political tension and possibilities. Everyone knows it’s due in two days and this colors all activity with a rare sense of urgency.

The desperate living conditions in the country attach a heightened sense of importance to the next elections in a way that may even surpass the 1980 election. A veteran trade unionist i spoke to yesterday says Saturday March 29 is Independence Day. The election is what is on everyone’s mouth. As soon as families and friends exchange greetings with relatives trecking in from the diaspora, last seen a long time ago, the very next item of discussion is the elections, and the expectation for change is frightening!

Reports coming from rural areas tell an identical story. Opposition T-shirts are now visible in what were no-go areas. Mugabe has had to cancel five rallies in the rural areas due to poor attendance, including in his own home area of Zvimba! Some Chiefs and Headmen have openly denounced Mugabe and are stumping for the opposition!

I think that turnout in this election will be much higher than many originally anticipated. In fact, many political analysts have been taken back by the level of political interests evident in the last month or so. Morgan Tsvangirai’s rallies have been HUGE in ways that he even says ‘ surprised him.’

The only concern many in civic society are raising is that a lot of the people who are desperately calling for change may not be registered to vote. Many could not register on time because of pressing day to day survival matters!

The main question on people’s minds is no longer if Mugabe will be defeated in the election, it is now whether he will accept defeat. Many are not sure about that, thus creating many possible post-election scenarios that i will come back to at the end of this post. Mugabe’s failure to play by the rules in the past is creating a sense of skepticism in others as to whether their vote even matters.

Will the people of Zimbabwe be able to vote for a candidate of their choice?

Many of the civic society people we spoke to say the political environment is much more open compared to previous elections and feel confident that people will be able to cast their votes peacefully. There is virtually no violence at all in urban areas, the reported cases of violence in rural areas are isolated – nothing compared to the last general election.

Whilst the political environment seems to be open, democratic participation will be undermined on a technical level. The government’s recent unilateral delimitation of constituency boundaries and lack of clear knowledge as to the specific polling stations that people will vote from is creating so much confusion two days before the election. In addition, the government announced a smaller number of polling stations than they had previously promised. Urban areas, which are opposition strongholds, have less polling station than rural areas.

Intimidation/ coup threats

A major cause of concern is the statements by the commissioner of police, the commander of the national army and the commander of the prison services. These three generals have issued statements commanding officers and men and women under their command to vote for Mugabe and have openly said that they will not salute Morgan Tsvangirai or Simba Makoni. This has been correctly interpreted as a coup threat and does have the effect of intimidating the electorate. Even Mugabe, at a recent rally, said, ‘voting MDC is a waste of votes,’ because he will never allow the MDC to rule this country. All of this raises questions of whether Mugabe and his regime are prepared to respect the democratic wishes of the people of Zimbabwe.

Possible rigging through postal ballots

The Zimbabwe Electoral Commission printed 600,000 postal ballots and postal voting has already started. This is the most insecure part of the voting process. No observers are monitoring this process and there are a lot of loopholes that can led to abuse. Independent civic bodies have no record of who these anticipated postal voters are and there are fears that the process will be manipulated to serve the incumbent.

Unequal access to state media

The government of Zimbabwe has failed to abide by the SADC protocol on elections’ requirement that all contesting parties get equal access to state media. Whilst the opposition can flight its adverts on TV, Radio and in Newspapers – state journalists have clearly been mobilised to abuse the opposition. Mugabe gets huge manicured coverage whereas the opposition is abused and misrepresented everyday in the state press. State journalists are nauseatingly partisan thus undermining the democratic process!

An unbalanced playing field

Mugabe’s refusal to adopt people driven constitutional reforms gives him an unfair advantage in this contest. Whilst the election environment is freer than before, it is still a constricted space. Security and media laws continue to undermine candidates’ ability to freely canvass and mobilise for the election. Candidates have had problems with door to door campaigns; the opposition can not organise peaceful marches to rally support. Using the controversial President’s Emergency Powers Act, Mugabe recently brought the police force into the running of the elections – something that goes against the original agreements made through the SADC dialogue. This was done to ostensibly allow the the police to assist illiterate and disabled voters. As partisan and violent as the Zimbabwe Republic Police is, its presence within 100 meters of a polling station can only undermine the integrity of the voting process.

Outright vote buying

The Mugabe government has of late been giving handouts to people in targeted communities in a way that is clearly designed to buy votes. This includes buses donated to communities a few days before the elections, cars to Chiefs, and manipulation of food aid. This obviously distorts the democratic process.

Do people have confidence in the invited observer mission?

The clear response to this question from all quarters of civic society is that they would have been more confident if the election had been open for observation to all who want to. Whilst there is appreciation that SADC, AU, and the Non Aligned Movement are present, and civic society is taking every opportunity to make representations to these observer missions, there is still lack of confidence that these missions will be able to observe the elections in an objective impartial manner considering their history of endorsing Mugabe’s ‘victory’ in previous controversial elections. Another concern is the refusal by the observer mission to put on record the coup threats by security chiefs and other concerns raised by civic society.

What is the priority after March 29?

The overwhelming sentiment is that the top priority is to fix the economy. People want an economy that provides their basic needs such as food, drugs, transports, water, electricity, health care, and education. People want an economy that gives them jobs and opportunities to live decent lives. People want an economy that can give them the confidence to raise their heads again. People want a people centered economy.

People centered constitutional reform is widely mentioned as a priority as well as a means to ensure that Zimbabwe has a robust framework on which to build an enduring democracy.

Do the people have confidence that the contending parties will tackle the pressing national priority

Support for the MDC by many civic formations is based on the understanding that an MDC victory will open up democratic space and create room for different civic groups to be able to advance their causes. For example the residents believe that they will have more room to push for local government reforms and the students believe that they will have more room to defend the right to education. Whilst there is overwhelming support for the MDC by civic society groups with some calling it ‘our baby,’ there is also a healthy skepticism of politicians and political parties and a civil society commitment to maintain a watch dog role even when the MDC comes to power. In fact, the main civic groups are planning a conference to discuss their role post-March 29 regardless of who comes to power.

Possible post March 29 scenarios

1. Mugabe loses the election but is declared a winner

There are now increasing fears that there will be violence if people turn out en masse to vote Mugabe out and then feel robbed afterwards. ‘Defend The Vote’ is emerging as a key slogan in the run up to the elections with many people not trusting that Mugabe will gracefully accept defeat. There were reports that Morgan Tsvangirai called for people to go back to the polling stations the next day to wait for the election results to be announced!

It is not clear whether there will be sustained mass action if Mugabe steals the election, but what is clear is that there will be overflowing anger and depending on the leadership that the opposition will provide, this can turn into mass action on a level never seen in post-independence Zimbabwe

2. Mugabe loses and Morgan Tsvangirai or Simba Makoni is declared a winner

There is fear that in this case they will be violence from the fanatical Zanu PF element that includes elements of the security forces loyal to the generals who have already threatened a coup, war veterans and youth militia.

3. A risk averse opposition and risk taking Zanu- PF

A respected academic at the University of Zimbabwe, Eldored Masunungure, recently characterised the opposition as ‘risk averse’ and Zanu PF as a ‘risk taker’. His postulation was that Mugabe will win the election through hook and crook and the opposition will not do anything beyond appealing to thE courts, a process that will drag on until the time of the next election.

Messages to the International Activists, especially in the U.S.

One of the messages is that the loudest voices on Zimbabwe from the U.S. are coming from groups like the December 12 Movement who extend unprincipled support to Mugabe. Civic groups here are calling for progressive U.S. organisations to be more vigilant in extending solidarity to progressive organisations in Zimbabwe to counter the damaging impact of misdirected solidarity efforts. Mugabe has skillfully projected Zimbabwe’s problems as a race and land issue, but many civic groups here want the discourse to go beyond this false framework and call upon progressive organisations internationally to help expose Mugabe’s fake ‘people politics’, that confuses many people internationally whilst shielding gross corruption, human right abuses, and his regime’s self serving policies that undermine social justice. A constant message from a number of organisations was ‘please do not tire’ – continue to talk and organize about Zimbabwe in your constituencies until democracy prevails.

Lets meet again soon, as we move into the historic March 29…

Today i head East to Mutare, th fourth largest city. The drive there passes through peri-urban and rural areas and this allows me to get a sense of the situation in the country outside Harare. Stay tuned…

Solidarity Forever!

Briggs

Coming Back to a Different Place

March 27, 2008

(apologies for the late update – internet access was just too hectic the past few days – a sign of how things have deteriorated)

I touched down at Harare International Airport Tuesday night ( 19 March) on a half full South African Airways flight. I had the pleasant surprise of running into Davie Malungisa at Johannesburg airport – a colleague I have had the pleasure to work with on social justice and democracy issues for a number of years. Davie is a founder of Zimbabwe Coalition on Debt and Developments (ZIMCODD) and the Zimbabwe Social Forum (ZSF) – and is now the Executive Director of Institute of Democratic Alternatives of Zimbabwe (IDAZIM) based in South Africa. Our flight’s one-hour delay gave us an opportunity to quickly catch up on the situation in Zimbabwe and discuss possible post-election scenarios.

Harare International Airport was like a ghost town. The SAA flight was the only one and and everything seemed to be engulfed in grey, not just at the airport but the whole way to my host’s place in downtown Harare. Driving into Harare the most noticeable thing was how the infrastructure is collapsing. Most street lights are out, same as traffic lights, roads are potholed – it does not look like maintenance is still a part of Harare City Council’s work. The first shock was paying 10 million Zimbabwe dollars for 30 minutes parking. The Zimbabwe dollar was trading at 1 is to 35 million to the U.S dollar. A gallon of petrol is selling at 300 million dollars! This becomes more ridiculous if one considers that the Zimbabwe government slashed 3 zeros from its currency recently. Thus in reality the above figures are all billions. Everything is charged in millions and the highest note is 10 million. A colleague tells me that his kids were confused at school when they read about cents and coins – the younger kids have no idea what that is.

Driving around Harare there is a charged quietness. something close to the calm before the storm.’ Cases of violence are very isolated and minimal even in the usually restive working class suburbs. On the streets one could see candidates from different parties busy canvasing. Opposition campaign adverts are appearing in the state controlled media creating an impression that things are normal on the surface. This is exactly the question that i want to ask civic society people i am meeting. Has the electoral situation changed fundamentally since the last elections? Is March 29 going to be a free and fair election? In my next post, coming in the next few hours i will summaries the mood in the country, responses we have been getting from civic society and weigh in with a bit of my own analysis!

 

 

Regards,

 

Briggs

 

Interactive map shows election rigging

March 25, 2008

[Posted by Michael Swigert from Africa Action’s office in Washington]

Sokwanele, a “civil action support group” has developed this interactive map displaying the location of violations (“breaches”) of the SADC Principles and Guidelines Governing Democratic Elections. Sokwanele points out the essential reality that elections are a process, not an event, and the same, sadly, applies to rigging.

Although the reality of how widespread government abuses are is deeply troubling, this site is a great example of how creative civil society groups in Africa can use Google Maps mashups and other forms of web-based technology to get their message out about human rights and democracy. See Ushahidi.com’s timeline/map of post-electoral violence in Kenya for a similar project.

Listen to Briggs on Africa Today with Walter Turner

March 20, 2008

[Posted by Michael Swigert from Africa Action’s office in Washington]

Last week, veteran journalist and Africanist Walter Turner spoke with Briggs about the upcoming elections, and his expectations for this trip. You can download or listen to their in depth conversation at the KPFA website here.

A climate of tension

March 20, 2008

[posted by Michael Swigert, from Africa Action’s office in Washington]

As the elections approach and Briggs makes his way to Zimbabwe, the political environment is growing increasingly on edge. Human Rights Watch just released its latest report on Zimbabwe yesterday, to much high profile hand wringing by Western media. The damningly unambiguous title of the report speaks for itself: “All Over Again: Human Rights Abuses and Flawed Electoral Conditions in Zimbabwe’s Coming General Elections.” International Crisis Group today followed HRW up with its own new report on Zimbabwe, calling for the international community, lead by the African Union, to prepare “contingency plans” in the event that public frustration with election rigging leads to a violent crisis.

The Zimbabwe Election Support Network (ZESN), a consortium of independent civil society groups, put forward a similar assessment Thursday when it criticized recent changes to election laws as overly restrictive and likely to undermine the legitimacy of the polls in the eyes of the public.

What about the official observers put in place by SADC (the Southern African Development Community)? According to one representative, things are going smoothly. “The administrative arms of government are all working, everybody who is supposed to contribute to the election is doing his or her duties unhindered,” said Jose Marcos Barrica, Angola’s Minister of Youth, Sport and Culture and head of the SADC monitoring team.” SADC has been very uncritical of previous elections in Zimbabwe – at odds with the view of Western governments, international NGOs and the reports of many local civil society groups. HRW’s Georgette Gagnon is unequivocal in her view that March 29 represents a major test of SADC’s committment to democracy. “If southern African leaders are serious about ending Zimbabwe’s political crisis, they need to tell the Zimbabwean government there will be consequences if it again flouts its commitment to hold free and fair elections. Another round of flawed elections should not lead to business as usual.”

How do ordinary Zimbabweans and local community leaders feel about recent changes to the electoral laws? Do they think that SADC observers will accurately report their experience with the democratic process? How are they preparing for the changes (or lack thereof) they are expecting at the end of the month? The government is playing tough with Western journalists, screening vigorously for European or U.S. spies among the hundreds of reporters and camera crews hoping to converge on Zim, so reports over the next ten days in mainstream newspapers and other media coverage may be drawing from an even narrower base of content than usual for any African issue.

A BRIEF STOP OVER IN SOUTH AFRICA!

March 19, 2008

Day 2: A BRIEF STOP OVER IN SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa turned out to be an intense political experience as i had anticipated. I arrived at my host’s place at midnight on Monday 17 March and my host Mhlobo an active member of South Africa’s social movement wasted no time in giving me a heads up on the state of the social movements and the general political situation in SA. The Anti-Privatisation Forum (APF) – An umbrella body for civic organisations mobilising and organising against neo-liberalism in SA had just convened its elective Annual General Meeting the weekend before, which was marked by robust political debates on the future of the social movements in SA. The movements expressed disappointment in the ANC’s embrace of harmful neo-liberal policies and when the discussion of Jacob Zuma came up with certain affiliates of the APF suggesting that the social movements must back Jacob Zuma as a way of relating to and winning the support of the working class and the masses of SA behind him, a comrade tells me that this motion was shot down with activists saying choosing between Mbeki and Zuma is like ‘choosing to befriend one crocodile over the other’ – since both promote neo-liberalism

Tuesday – March 18

Started the day meeting with comrades at Khanya college. Khanya college has for decades been in the forefront of proving education for the working class and social movements – ‘Education for liberation’ as they call it. Now Khanya college has a six story in central Johannesburg that is shaping out to be the ‘house of movements’. The building already houses the APF, Jubilee South, Women Reproductive Health Centre and other progressive organisations with groups like Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) expected to move in soon. My contact work was made much easier as i was running from one floor to the other meeting with colleagues and exchanging notes on Africa Action and work and work going on on the continent. Watch out for my images coming soon! I was quite delighted to find Africa Action material from back in the day (Africa’s Right to Health Caampaign’ at the APF offices. In discussing with comrades , it was interesting to make the connection between water privatisation and its attendant restriction to water access and the impact on people living with HIV.

Unfortunately i was not able able to meet half as many organisations as i had intended partly because Joburg is a city in crisis right now. There are daily electricity outages in the city center and residential areas and this adversely affects how people work. For me, i had to haul my luggage 5 floor because the elevators were out. On the street traffic lights were out and the congestion was bad making it impossible to reach people. Whilst Internet access is available at many places – most of the time it was excruciatingly slow. I had to abandon plans to work in the beautifully set up Khanya college’s Social Movements Resource centre because the Internet was terribly slow and comrades tell me that its because they do not have enough bandwidth.

All the SA movements i met were greatly concerned about Zimbabwe and many already participating in solidarity efforts. It was great meeting with an old time comrade of mine, comrade Mao Nyikadzino a Program Officer with the Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition, South Africa office and exchange notes on solidarity work in the run up to the elections and possible post election scenarios.

Time and a malfunctioning city were my biggest let down! In the middle of very interesting engagements with comrades i had to make the painful decision to turn back and run to the airport. In fact i had to walk down the dark COSATU House, which houses, COSATU, SACP, YCL, Zimbabwe Liaison Office and others, and run to the airport without meeting all the people i wanted.

I am now bound for Zimbabwe – Stay tuned for the most anticipated landing!

Dare to Invent the Future!

Briggs

On the Road to Witness Democracy? in Zimbabwe: March 29 Elections

March 18, 2008

(Written 03/16/08)

Hello,

On March 29 Zimbabweans vote in what is turning out to be the most anticipated and yet unpredictable general election since the momentous 1980 vote that ushered in the country’s independence and attracted a record 98% participation from the electorate. At a time when Zimbabwe is experiencing the most severe social, economic and political crisis in the country’s history, March 29 embodies the ‘fierce urgency of now’ than any other time. I am on a journey as part of Africa Action’s historic solidarity with democracy, human rights and social justice struggles in Africa that for Zimbabwe, manifested in the 70s as support for the national liberation struggle. It is this same principle fo solidarity that propelled Africa Action [then as the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), the Africa Fund (AF) and Africa Policy Information Center (APIC)] to the forefront of the antiapartheid mobilisation in the U.S. I invite you to walk with me as I retrace the footprints of my predecessors at Africa Action who have been there, in Africa, at key moments not only to capture people’s aspirations and lift up seldom heard social justice voices but also in order to inform and strengthen solidarity and efforts to reshape U.S. – Africa policies.

I will be updating this blog regularly with my experiences and welcome all your questions and comments.

My journey starts now as I step onto this ‘silver bird’ with a strong feeling of a historical mission. 37,000 feet above the Atlantic ocean my impatient mind races ahead to the country I last visited close to one and a half years ago as I try to imagine what awaits me this time. Vague memories of things, the way they were then, play back in my mind like a grainy 60s video. So much has changed, at such a fast pace – it makes me feel like I am going to a totally different place. The most tracked and publicized change is in prices (inflation), – prices went up by over 150,000% in the last 18 months according to conservative official government estimates. I imagine the devastating impact of such skyrocketing cost of living, in survival terms, on families. I think of the thousands of workers who lost their jobs in factory closures, I think of thousands, who could not bear it, and left for the diaspora and i try to the impossible mathematics of estimating the disruption of this forced migration on families, friendships, relationships and culture. I remember a colleague of mine, months back, telling me that when the immigration officer stamped his passport to cross into South Africa, ‘ I felt like I escaped!’. I think of the dilapidated state of health care and education and millions of dreams crushed under the weight of the present crisis, for all these years and i wonder if a single day – March 29, can hold the answer to so many questions.

As I think of the dire humanitarian crisis gripping Zimbabwe and the hopes millions of Zimbabweans place in the coming elections, I start to put together questions i would like to ask Zimbabweans in the run up to this much expected date:

  1. Do you think you will be able to vote for the candidate of your choice on March 29? Why?
  2. What is the foremost priority to you right now?
  3. Which candidate do you think can best tackle the country’s problems?
  4. Do you have confidence that the invited observers will observe the elections impartially?
  5. Take me through your month on a paycheck that is a tiny fraction of your monthly needs?

While the March 29 vote combines the presidential, parliamentary, senate and local government elections, all eyes are on the main price –the presidential election pitting the incumbent Robert Mugabe of the Zimbabwe Africa Union Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) against veteran opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and new comer Simba Makoni, a former cabinet minister and senior member if Zanu PF.

In light of the well publicized coup threats by Zimbabwe’s army and security chiefs in the event of Mugabe losing the ballot, I wonder how much this will influence the vote. In addition to asking people direct questions, I am interested in observing the general environment in the lead up to the election focusing on issues of intimidation, violence, access to state media and impartiality of state institutions.

My first stop is South Africa where i will spend Monday night and Tuesday reconnecting to Johannesburg based vibrant Zimbabwe solidarity movement and also talk to Africa Action’s allies in the social justice movement.

Stay tuned for an update….

Dare to Invent the Future!

Briggs

Walk with me in Zimbabwe…

March 13, 2008

About

The press is already heating up with stories about Zimbabwe in advance of the March 29th elections. The question is – are you getting the whole story? If you are tempted to go deeper than the mainstream press on this important issue, we invite you to journey with Africa Action and TransAfrica Forum to the region through our new blog JustZimbabwe.

You can follow the lead up to the Zimbabwean elections, read about Election Day and examine the aftermath of the elections with us through the blog. We hope that you will check in regularly and comment on the postings so that we can generate a national dialogue at this historic moment.

Africa Action has a long history in solidarity with the people of Zimbabwe. In the 1970s this solidarity took the form of supporting the liberation struggle and standing with Zimbabweans against the human rights abuses of Ian Smith.

Today, Africa Action has joined with our ally TransAfrica Forum to revive into this legacy of solidarity and reach out to support Zimbabweans as they seek to continue the unfinished business of the liberation struggle in this historic election. Briggs Bomba, Africa Action’s Program Associate in our Department of Public Education and Mobilization and a citizen of Zimbabwe, is traveling to the region with two representatives of TransAfrica Forum.

The delegates will spend time meeting up with allied organizations in Zimbabwe and then split up to go to three regions of the country to reach out to ordinary Zimbabweans. Collecting stories and testimonies and analysis from the field, the delegates will absorb the full environment surrounding the March 29th elections. On Election Day, the three delegates will informally and un-officially observe the proceedings. Through the blog, they will be able to report directly
from Zimbabwe about the lead up to the elections, Election Day and the aftermath. When they return to Washington, DC, they will de-brief their journey at a reception on April 10th hosted by TransAfrica Forum. If you are in the area, we hope you will join us. Please visit Africa Action’s website for future details of this event.